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"419" Scam – Advance Fee / Fake Lottery Scam

The so-called "419" scam is a type of fraud dominated by criminals from Nigeria and other countries in Africa. Victims of the scam are promised a large amount of money, such as a lottery prize, inheritance, money sitting in some bank account, etc.

Victims never receive this non-existent fortune but are tricked into sending their money to the criminals, who remain anonymous. They hide their real identity and location by using fake names and fake postal addresses as well as communicating via anonymous free email accounts and mobile phones.

Keep in mind that scammers DO NOT use their real names when defrauding people.
The criminals either abuse names of real people or companies or invent names or addresses.
Any real people or companies mentioned below have NO CONNECTION to the scammers!

Read more about such scams here or in our 419 FAQ. Use the Scam-O-Matic to verify suspect emails.

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Some comments by the Scam-O-Matic about the following email:

Fraud email example:

From: Paul Alexander Esq <>
Date: Sat, 22 May 2021 01:30:57 +0000

Good Day,

I am Paul Alexander, a lawyer, this is a confidential correspondent. I am a financial consultant to an investor from a mineral rich African country with political background who wants to invest outside his client had approached me with a mandate to seek for a firm or reputable well established individual that has the experience in investment management that can help him channel some funds into a profitable investment outside Africa, where he can get good yield for his money. Due to his sensitive position in his country and the unstable investment environment, my client decided not to retain any of his assets in the country. Kindly let me know your acceptance to this offer and furnish me with a comprehensive draft of your terms and conditions with the below email contact.

Yours sincerely,

Paul Alexander Esq (

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Anti-fraud resources: