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"419" Scam – Advance Fee / Fake Lottery Scam

The so-called "419" scam is a type of fraud dominated by criminals from Nigeria and other countries in Africa. Victims of the scam are promised a large amount of money, such as a lottery prize, inheritance, money sitting in some bank account, etc.

Victims never receive this non-existent fortune but are tricked into sending their money to the criminals, who remain anonymous. They hide their real identity and location by using fake names and fake postal addresses as well as communicating via anonymous free email accounts and mobile phones.

Keep in mind that scammers DO NOT use their real names when defrauding people.
The criminals either abuse names of real people or companies or invent names or addresses.
Any real people or companies mentioned below have NO CONNECTION to the scammers!

Read more about such scams here or in our 419 FAQ. Use the Scam-O-Matic to verify suspect emails.

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Some comments by the Scam-O-Matic about the following email:

Fraud email example:

From: "Gary Dunhamn" <>
Date: Tue, 13 Apr 2021 11:57:43 +0800
Subject: Re


Am Gary Dunham a Financial Strategic. I want to invest in Private sectors in a broad range of areas, Within our Financial Investment Services are M&A development and Management, Financial & Operational management, Due diligence, Capital planning and Development including Real estate, Energy, Oil & Gas, Emerging markets, Digital content and Services.

I wish to invest in any viable Projects with good ROI presented by your Management after review on your Business Model Presentation Plan. I intend to maintain a Silent/Financial Position with your Company.

We look forward to your Swift response.

As soon as I hear from you details will be communicated back to you.

Gary Dunham

Anti-fraud resources: